10 Attributes of a good employee (by Bill Gates)

Here’s a little Microsoft internal gem I found from back in the day while I was rooting through my old email files.

I’m dedicating this posting to my daughter Rhomni who is turning 21 this week and just got her first job.


From: Mark Franks
Sent: Wednesday, April 23, 1997 10:20 PM
To: Developer Relations Staff
Subject: Bill Gates on ten attributes of a good employee
Importance: Low


—–Original Message—–

From:                     Library News Service

Sent:                      Tuesday, April 22, 1997 2:48 PM

To:                         Daily Newswire Subscribers

Subject:                 Industry: Bill Gates Column (NYT Syndicate) 4/23/97

Ten attributes of a good employee


I’m often asked how to be a good manager, a topic I’ve taken on in this column more than once. Less often does anybody ask an equally important question: What makes a good employee?

Here are 10 of the qualities I find in the “best and brightest” employees, the people companies should attract and retain.

If you have all of these attributes, you’re probably a terrific employee.

First, it’s important to have to have a fundamental curiosity about the product or products of your company or group. You have to use the products yourself.  This can’t be stressed enough in the computer world. It also carries special weight in other knowledge-based fields where

technology and practices are advancing so fast that’s it’s very hard to keep up. If you don’t have a fascination with the products, you can get out of date–and become ineffective–pretty quickly.

Second, you need a genuine interest in engaging customers in discussions about how they use products–what they like, what they don’t like. You have to be a bit of an evangelist with customers, and yet be realistic about where your company’s products are falling short and could be better.

Third, once you understand your customer’s needs, you have to enjoy thinking through how a product can help. If you work in the software industry, for example, you might ask: “How can this product make work more interesting? How can it make learning more interesting? How can it be used in the home in more interesting ways?”

These first three points are related.

Success comes from understanding and caring deeply about your products, your technology and

your customers’ needs.

Fourth, you as an individual employee should maintain the same type of long-term approach that a good company does. Employees need to focus on lifelong goals such as developing their own skills and those of the people they work with. This kind of self-motivation requires discipline, but it can be quite rewarding.  Management can also encourage motivation, of course. If you’re in sales, quotas are important tools for measuring performance, and it’s great when employees beat a quota. But if beating your sales quota or maximizing your next bonus or salary increase is all that motivates you, you’re likely to miss out on the kind of teamwork and development that create success in the long term.

Fifth, you need to have specialized knowledge or skills while maintaining a broad perspective. Big companies, in particular, need employees who can learn specialties quickly. No one should assume that the expertise they have today will suffice tomorrow, so a willingness to learn is critical.

Sixth, you have to be flexible enough to take advantage of opportunities that can give you perspective. At Microsoft we try to offer a person lots of different jobs through the course of a career. Anyone interested in joining management is encouraged to work in different customer units, even if it means moving laterally within the organization or relocating to a different part of the world.

We try to move people from our product groups out into the field and move field people into the product groups. We have many people in our U.S. subsidiary from other countries, and we have many U.S. employees who work for subsidiaries in other nations. This helps us better understand world markets, and while we do a pretty good job of cross-pollination, there’s still not quite as much of it as I would like.

Seventh, a good employee will want to learn the economics of the business. Why does a company do what it does? What are its business models? How does it make money?  I’m always surprised to learn of a company that doesn’t educate its employees in the fundamental financial realities of its industry. Employees need to understand the “make or break” aspects of their industry so that they know what it is about their own job that really counts. Of course, employees have to be willing students who direct attention to the areas where it makes the biggest difference.

 (Most of this stuff is pretty textbook management advice until you get to this point. You don’t see this emphasis on competitors very often and it was a defining emphasis for Microsoft and Bill Gates)

Eighth, you must focus on competitors. I like employees who think about what’s going on in the marketplace. What are our competitors doing that’s smart? What can we learn from them? How can we avoid their mistakes?

Ninth, you’ve got to use your head. Analyze problems but don’t fall prey to “analysis paralysis.” Understand the implications of potential tradeoffs of all kinds, including the tradeoff between acting sooner with less information and later with more.  Use your head in practical ways, too. Prioritize your time effectively. Think about how to give advice crisply to other groups.

Finally, don’t overlook the obvious essentials such as being honest, ethical and hard working. These attributes are critical and go

without saying.


This message was of course carefully crafted for public dissemination.  Under the hood Microsoft was amazingly systematic and rigorous in its recruiting and cultivation of talent.  Bill placed a much higher emphasis on raw intelligence and competitive hunger than many other companies do in recruiting talent.  I was told that the average age of a Microsoft employee when I joined  in 1992 was less than 28.  When I became a team manager I was given a highly developed kit for interviewing and reviewing employees.   Included here is a deck of “interview cards” that I was given to guide me in interviewing and assessing the potential of new employees, these cards express much more clearly how Microsoft evaluated and rewarded talent beyond the PR filtered top 10 list that was publicly released.

Microsoft Management Tools
Microsoft Management Tools
Microsoft Management Tools.pdf
6.7 MiB

Years later, now that I have been an executive for over a decade, I would add the following observation to all of this.  It’s hard to be a good leader if you haven’t learned how to be a good follower and team player first.  I write embarrassing stories about the crazy things I did in my youth as a kind of penance for the stress and aggravation I certainly caused my management back then.  My punishment for such youthful indiscretions was being condemned to manage many more like me.  One of the important lessons I learned at the top is that you ALWAYS work for somebody, even when you’re the boss you have customers, investors and employees who have hired you with their money or their careers to deliver value for them.  A good CEO places the interests and success of the business ahead of their own and when you’ve learned that lesson, you spend a lot of lonely time trying to teach your employees to value the success of the company over their own immediate interests because the ones who learn it are the ones you can promote.  People in management positions who have not taken that lesson to heart will need more management because they will use their authority to protect and advance their own interests over the company and in doing so, put pressure on their peers to behave in kind until the company has become a balkanized bureaucracy of warring factions.  One of the most effective influences on Microsoft’s success was that Bill and Steve were very generous in sharing the fruits of Microsoft’s success with it’s employees.  As a result, no matter how internally competitive the organization got, there was always an underlying realization that you were only going to get “rich” by improving the entire company’s value, pursuing short term incremental raises or promotions were of negligible personal value compared to the rewards for making the entire company’s stock price go up.


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